Sunday, September 29, 2019

Hydrabad Recipe House

Mutton Biryani set lunch comes with soft drink and Paya. Cost RM 23.90. Taste is very good. 

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Tea Timeline

2737 BC               

According to legend, Emperor Shen Nung was sitting under a tree (Camellia Sinensis), while his servant boiled some drinking water. Dried leaves from the tree fell into the pot and infused with the water, creating the first tea infusion which the emperor enjoyed.

206 BC – 220 AD              

Containers of tea found in tombs dating from the Han Dynasty.

618 – 906            

Tang Dynasty: tea became firmly established as the national drink of China.

Tea became a popular drink in Buddhist monasteries, because caffeine kept the monks awake during long hours of meditation.

Late 8th Century             

Lu Yu wrote the first book entirely about tea, the Cha Jing or The Classic of Tea. Lu Yu was an orphan raised and educated in a monastery. This inspired him to write the book on tea.

Japanese monks who visited China to study took this tea plant back with them to Japan, resulting in the beginnings of the Japanese tea culture.

960 – 1279          

Whipped powdered tea became fashionable during the Song Dynasty, but disappeared after the Yuan Dynasty.

1279 – 1368       

Chinese people become accustomed to drinking steeped tea leaves.

Later half of the 16th Century    There is brief mention of tea as a drink among Europeans, mostly from Portuguese who were living in the East as traders and missionaries.


The first to ship tea back to Europe commercially were the Dutch and not the Portuguese. The first consignment of tea was shipped from China to Holland via Java.

Tea soon became a fashionable drink among the Dutch and from there spread to other countries in Western Europe. Due to its high price, it remained a drink for the wealthy.

September 1658              

First references to tea in Britain; an advert in a London newspaper announced its availability in a coffee house, referred to as the “China drink” known as Tcha, Tay or Tee.


The East India Company began to import tea into Britain with a first order of 100 lbs of China Tea, shipped from Java.

In Britain, the marriage of Charles II to Catherine of Braganza, a Portuguese princess who was a tea addict, was a turning point in the history of tea in Britain. Her love for tea established it as a fashionable beverage, first at court and then among the wealthy.

Late 17th Century           

High taxes on tea and its popularity brought about the smuggling and adulteration of tea in Britain as the masses could not afford.

Late 18th Century           

Tea was adulterated with leaves from other plants or leaves which had already been brewed and then dried. Sometimes the adulterated tea colour was not real enough so anything from sheep dung to poisonous copper carbonate were added to make it look more like the original tea. Smuggled and adulterated tea weighed 7 million pounds while legally imported tea was only 5 million pounds.  

Dec 1773             

The Boston Tea Party: a protest against tea duties, that sparked off the American War of Independence, which eventually led to the USA becoming an independent nation instead of a group of British colonies.

By 1784                

The British government slashed taxes, making tea more affordable and this put an end to the smuggling.


The end of the East India Company’s monopoly on tea trade with China brought about by the growth of tea plantations in the British colonies like India and Sri Lanka. Shipping time to Britain was reduced significantly and tea became more affordable.

Circa 1908           

Thomas Sullivan, a New York tea merchant started to send samples of tea to his customers in small silken bags. Some customers assumed that these tea bags were to be used in the same way as metal infusers and put the whole bag into the hot water pot. Thence, the unintentional creation of the tea bag. Based on customer feedback, Sullivan developed the first tea bags out of gauze.


Tea bags were developed for commercial production, initially from gauze and then later from paper.


The first tea plantation was established in Malaya during the British administration, in Cameron Highlands.


Tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world next to water. China, India and Kenya are the top 3 tea producing countries.

Revisiting IKEA

Headed straight for the IKEA Restaurant on arrival.  These meat balls are fantastic with the cranberry sauce.  

Perak Tung Meng Hui members

Lee Guan Swee

Teh Lay Seng

Ching Dynasty Cartoons

Leong Sin Nam's Business Ventures

A cheque issued through The Bank of Malaya Limited

An envelop addressed to The Perak Trust & Investment Co. Ltd. 

Early Chinese Workers in the Federated Malay States.

Chinese junks carrying Chinese from China

Coolies at the harbour

Difficult manual work

Dulang washers

Keeping a smile despite the hard work at the tin mine

Early Chinese tin mine

Chinese rubber tappers

Sundry shop

Trishaw pullers
Pepper plantation
Comradeship after a hard days work

Operating a water jet at a tin mine

For All the Tea in China

In the mid-19th century, Britain was an almost unchallenged empire. It controlled about a fifth of the world's surface, and yet its weakness had everything to do with tiny leaves soaked in hot water: tea. By 1800, it was easily the most popular drink among Britons.

Robert Fortune was a 19th-century Scottish botanist who helped the East India Trading Company swipe the secrets of tea production from China.Apic/Getty Images

The problem? All the tea in the world came from China, and Britain couldn't control the quality or the price. So around 1850, a group of British businessmen set out to create a tea industry in a place they did control: India.

For All the Tea In China: How England Stole the World's Favorite Drink and Changed History is writer Sarah Rose's account of the effort to control the tea market, what she calls the "greatest single act of corporate espionage in history."

"The task required a plant hunter, a gardener, a thief, a spy. The man Britain needed was Robert Fortune," Rose writes. Fortune was the agent sent to sneak out of China the plants and secrets of tea production.

Before Fortune, England engaged in trade with China, sending opium in exchange for tea.

But "the Chinese emperor hated that opium was the medium of exchange, because a nation of drug addicts was being created. So the emperor confiscated all the opium [and] destroyed it all," Rose told NPR's Guy Raz in a 2010 interview. "England sent warships. And at the end of the day, they realized that if they were going to keep pace with the British tea consumption and not deal with the Chinese, they had to own it themselves."

Enter Robert Fortune, a botanist in an era when the natural sciences were on the ascent in Britain. At the time, many botanists had university degrees and were trained as doctors, but Fortune, who was Scottish, grew up poor.

"He kind of worked his way up through the ranks of professional botany, learning with hands-on training instead of book training," Rose said.

Around 1845, when the botanist was in his early 30s, he took a two-year trip to China in search of plants. Upon his return, he published a travelogue in which he described his adventures.

"He was attacked by pirates, he was attacked by bandits, he encountered all kinds of disease and storms, and he also goes in Chinese disguise, dressed up as if he were a wealthy Chinese merchant," Rose said.

His memoir captured the imagination of Victorian society, and Fortune was approached by a representative of the East India Trading Company — at the time, one of the most important (if not the most important) multinational corporations in the world. The company recruited Fortune to return to China — this time, to smuggle tea out of the country.

"They wanted really good tea stock from the very best gardens in China, and they also needed experts. They needed the Chinese to go to India to teach the British planters, as well as the Indian gardeners," Rose explained.

Fortune succeeded. He managed to get seeds from China to India, and the impact on the tea trade was immense. Within his lifetime, India surpassed China as the world's largest tea grower.

"It astonishes me," Rose said. "China has pretty much never really come back from that, certainly not in the Western markets. Now that Asia has such a booming economy, the Chinese are again pretty fierce tea producers. But it took a hundred-plus years."

So was Fortune history's greatest corporate thief, or the man we can thank for the tea we drink?

"I think he thought of himself as a China expert and a gardener," Rose said. "He didn't see himself as stealing something that didn't belong to him. He thought plants belonged to everybody."

Monday, September 2, 2019

Chinese Emigration (15th - early 20th Century)

Waves of Chinese emigration (also known as the Chinese diaspora) have happened throughout history. The mass emigration known as the Chinese diaspora, which occurred from the 19th century to 1949, was mainly caused by wars and starvation in mainland China, invasion from various foreign countries, as well as problems resulting from political corruption. Most emigrants were illiterate peasants and manual labourers, who emigrated to work in places such as the Americas, Australia, South Africa, Southeast Asia, and Zealandia.

According to Lynn Pan's book Sons of the Yellow Emperor, the Chinese coolie emigration began after slavery was abolished throughout the British possessions. Facing a desperate shortage of manpower, European merchants looked to replace African slaves with indentured laborers from China and India. A British Guiana planter found what he was looking for in the Chinese laborers: "their eagerness to make money and their history of toil from infancy".

Labour recruiters sold the services of large numbers of unskilled Chinese in the coolie trade to planters in colonies overseas in exchange for money to feed their families. This type of trading was known as Mai Zhu Zai (simplified Chinese: 卖猪仔; traditional Chinese: 賣豬仔; pinyin: mài zhū zǎi; literally: 'selling piglets') to the Chinese. The laborers' lives were very harsh. Some labor recruiters promised good pay and good working conditions to get men signed onto three-year labor contracts.

15th - 19th Century
     When the Ming dynasty in China fell, Chinese refugees fled south and extensively settled in the Cham lands and Cambodia. Most of these Chinese were young males, and they took Cham women as wives. Their children identified more with Chinese culture. This migration occurred in the 17th and 18th centuries.
     Early European colonial powers in Asia encountered Chinese communities already well-established in various locations. The Kapitan Cina in various places was the representative of such communities towards the colonial authorities.
     The Qing conquest of the Ming caused the Fujian refugees of Zhangzhou to resettle on the northern part of the Malay peninsula, while those of Amoy and Quanzhou resettled on the southern part of the peninsula. This group forms the majority of the Straits Chinese who were English-educated. Many others moved to Taiwan at this time.

19th - early 20th Century
     Chinese immigrants, mainly from the controlled ports of Fujian and Guangdong provinces, were attracted by the prospect of work in the tin mines, rubber plantations or the possibility of opening up new farmlands at the beginning of the 19th century until the 1930s in British Malaya.
     Between the period of 1927–1949, some Republic of China citizens were forced to emigrate because of insecurity, lack of food and lack of business opportunity due to Chinese Civil War and Second Sino-Japanese War. Some Nationalist refugees also fled to Singapore, Sarawak, North Borneo and Malaya after the Nationalists lost the civil war to avoid persecution or execution by the Communist party of China.
     The Kuomintang retreat to Taiwan in 1949 saw an emigration of approximately 2 million mainland Chinese to Taiwan.
     After Singapore became the capital of the British Straits Settlements in 1832, the free trade policy attracted many Chinese from Mainland China to trade, and many settled down in Singapore. Because of booming commerce which required a large labor force, the indentured Chinese coolie trade also appeared in Singapore. Coolies were contracted by traders and brought to Singapore to work. The large influx of coolies into Singapore only stopped after William Pickering became the Protector of Chinese. In 1914, the coolie trade was abolished and banned in Singapore. These populations form the basis of the Chinese Singaporeans.
     From the 19th till the mid 20th century, migrants from China were known as "Sinkeh" (Chinese: 新客; literally: 'new guests'). Out of these Sinkeh, a majority of them were coolies, workers on steamboats, or other manual labors. Some of them came to Singapore in search of better living and to escape away from poverty in China. Many of them also escaped to Singapore due to chaos and wars in China during the first half of the 20th century. Many of them came from Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan province. Most of them paid loyalty to China and regarded themselves as "Huaqiao" (華僑). Peranakans or those English-educated Chinese who had descended for many generations in Singapore were typically known as "Laokeh" (老客: old guest) or "Straits Chinese". Most of them paid loyalty to the British Empire and did not regard themselves as "Huaqiao".
     At the end of the 19th century, the Chinese government realized that overseas Chinese could be an asset, a source of foreign investment, and a bridge to overseas knowledge; thus, it encouraged the use of the term "Overseas Chinese" (華僑; Huáqiáo; 'Overseas Chinese').
     Among the provinces, Guangdong had historically supplied the largest number of emigrants, estimated at 8.2 million in 1957; about 68% of the total overseas Chinese population at that time. Within Guangdong, the main emigrant communities were clustered in seven counties in the Pearl River Delta (珠江三角洲): four counties known as Sze Yup (四邑; 'four counties') and three counties known as Sam Yup (三邑; 'three counties'). Because of its limited arable lands, with much of its terrain either rocky or swampy; Sze Yup was the "pre-eminent sending area" of emigrants during this period. Most of the emigrants from Sze Yup went to North America, making Toishanese a dominant variety of the Chinese language spoken in China towns in Canada and the United States.
     In addition to being a region of major emigration abroad, Siyi (Sze Yup) was a melting pot of ideas and trends brought back by overseas Chinese, (華僑; Huáqiáo). For example, many tong lau in Chikan, Kaiping (Cek Ham, Hoiping in Cantonese) and diaolou (formerly romanized as Clock Towers) in Sze Yup built in the early 20th century featured Qiaoxiang (僑鄉) architecture, i.e., incorporating architectural features from both the Chinese homeland and overseas.
     Many Chinese, as well as people from other Asian countries, were prevented from moving to the United States as part of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. A similar law though less severe in scope was passed in Canada in 1885, imposing a head tax instead of prohibiting immigration to Canada entirely. However, a 1923 law in Canada prohibited Chinese immigration completely. The Chinese Exclusion Act would only be fully repealed in the US in 1965 and in Canada de jure in 1947 but de facto in the 1960s with the opening up of immigration to Canada.

Adapted from Wikipedia.

    Second Sino Japanese War

    The Second Sino-Japanese War was a major war between China and Japan during World War II. It started originally in 1931 with major disputes between them. Eventually after the Marco Polo Bridge incident, the two countries officially declared war. 

    Japan was aiming to dominate China for their limitless amount of raw materials and resources, for they would ensure the prosperity of their islands. Also, Japan wanted to create puppet countries, which are countries that are supposedly independent but in reality are manipulated by another country. These puppet states would suit Japanese interests. 

    China at the time was divided between the Republic of China, led by the Chinese Nationalist Party, and the Chinese Communists. The Nationalist Party had many goals. They wanted to defend their country, to decimate foreign imperialism (the extension of a nation’s territories or boundaries), to unify the country, and also conquer communism. China’s internal wars were probably one of the main reasons why China was taken over by Japan. The Republic of China was a very weak government at the time. On the other hand Japan surfaced as a very powerful country through their measures of modernization since the First Sino-Japanese War. 

    Since Japan was affectively invading China, China pleaded to the League of Nations, now known as United Nations. After the league declared that Japan was wrong for invading China and the countries around it, Japan withdrew from the league and stubbornly continued their advances. Even though Japan was trying to form puppet states/governments, the carnage of the imperial army was one the Chinese people looked upon with disapproval and prevented the governments they set up from being popular. The Nanking Massacre was one of the major reasons why. Nanking, today’s Nanjing, was the capital of China back then. The Imperial Japanese Army totally destroyed it, during the massacre atrocities took place such as rape, arson, execution of civilians, etc. Over 400 000 people were slaughtered. 

    At the time, it appeared that the Chinese Nationalists would lose, for most of their military arms were under Japanese control. However, Germany and the Soviet Union did provide support to China. Germany helped modernize China’s industries and military in return for raw materials, which China had a vast supply of. Eventually, the Germans broke off their trade due to their progress to World War II. The Soviet Union wanted to help China stay in the war to obstruct Japan from invading Siberia. Therefore, they provided China with military forces. Other countries, such as U.S.A., provided China with oil and steel embargos. However, Japan didn’t have those resources and had to get their hands on natural resources, for the attack on China couldn’t continue without them. This led them to the raid on Pearl Harbour. This proved to be a deadly mistake, as U.S.A. declared war on Japan. 

    Soon after, the Soviet Union marched an attack on Manchuria, a puppet state of Japan. The Second Sino-Japanese War ended with surrender from Japan after the droppings of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The Second Sino-Japanese War is considered as the worst Asian war in history because the casualties were over 2.5 million deaths.

    Adapted from Hamilton Spectator

    Sunday, September 1, 2019

    National Revolutionary Army

    A red rectangle with a smaller blue rectangle inside it. Inside the blue rectangle centered squarely is a white circle with small white triangles emanating from it.

    The National Revolutionary Army (NRA), sometimes shortened to Revolutionary Army (革命軍) before 1928, and as National Army (國軍) after 1928, was the military arm of the Kuomintang (KMT, or the Chinese Nationalist Party) from 1925 until 1947 in the Republic of China. It also became the regular army of the ROC during the KMT's period of party rule beginning in 1928. It was renamed the Republic of China Armed Forces after the 1947 Constitution, which instituted civilian control of the military.

    Originally organized with Soviet aid as a means for the KMT to unify China during the Warlord Era, the National Revolutionary Army fought major engagements in the Northern Expedition against the Chinese Beiyang Armywarlords, in the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) against the Imperial Japanese Army and in the Chinese Civil War against the People's Liberation Army.

    During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the armed forces of the Communist Party of China were nominally incorporated into the National Revolutionary Army (while retaining separate commands), but broke away to form the People's Liberation Army shortly after the end of the war. With the promulgation of the Constitution of the Republic of China in 1947 and the formal end of the KMT party-state, the National Revolutionary Army was renamed the Republic of China Armed Forces, with the bulk of its forces forming the Republic of China Army, which retreated to the island of Taiwan in 1949.

    Adapted from Wikipedia.

    Sir William Hood Treacher

    Sir William Hood Treacher KCMG (1 December 1849 – 3 May 1919) was a British colonial administrator in Borneo and the Straits Settlements. He founded the Anglo Chinese School in Klang on 10 March 1893.

    Treacher was the fourth son of Rev. Joseph Skipper Treacher, MA, Vicar of Sandford-on-Thames, by his first wife Pauline Louise Blanche Pierret. Both he and his father were graduates of Oxford colleges.

    Cousin of John Gavaron Treacher, doctor in Sarawak from 1843 and Colonial Surgeon to Labuan from 1848, William arrived in Labuan via Singapore in 1871 to be Acting Police Magistrate, becoming Colonial Secretary of Labuan in 1873, going on to become the first Governor of North Borneo (1881–1887); Resident of Selangor (1892–1896); the sixth British Resident of Perak (1896–1902); and second Resident-General of British Malaya (1901–1904).

    Sir Thomas Shenton

    Sir Thomas Shenton Whitelegge Thomas GCMG GCStJ (10 October 1879 – 15 January 1962), commonly known as Sir Shenton Thomas, was the last Governor of the Straits Settlements. He served from 1934 to 1942, during which time the Second World War broke out, and again from September 1945 to April 1946, when the Straits Settlements was dissolved.

    Before he went to Malaya as the colonial administrator, Thomas was the Governor of Nyasaland from 1929 to 1932. He was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George (GCMG) in 1930.

    Thomas was a prisoner-of-war during the Japanese occupation of Singapore (15 February 1942 - 15 August 1945) having decided to stay in Singapore during the war. He was imprisoned in Cell 24 of Changi Prison along with Ernest Tipson. Thomas helped established the King George V National Park in Malaya (later renamed the Taman Negara). Shenton Way, located in Singapore's business district, is named after him. After the war, Thomas remained as the 11th British High Commissioner in Malaya (9 November 1934 - 1 April 1946), until the Malayan Union was established and succeeded the British administration in the Straits Settlements (except for Singapore, which was created a separate colony), Federated Malay States and Unfederated Malay States, where the post of Governor-General of the Malayan Union was created.

    Thomas died on 15 January 1962, at his home in London. He was 82.

    Adapted from Wikipedia.

    General Tang Jiyao

    Tang Jiyao (simplified Chinese: 唐继尧; traditional Chinese: 唐繼堯; pinyin: Táng Jìyáo; Wade–Giles: T'ang Chi-yao) (August 14, 1883 – May 23, 1927) was a Chinese general and warlord of Yunnan during the Warlord Era of early Republican China. He was military governor of Yunnan from 1913-27.

    Tang was born in Huize county in 1883 in what is Qujing, Yunnan province.  He passed the Imperial examination in 1903 and was selected by the Qing government to study military theory at Tokyo Shimbu Gakko in Japan the following year. While in Japan he met Sun Yat-sen and became a member of the Tongmenghui revolutionary society dedicated to overthrowing the monarchy. In 1907 he continued on to the Imperial Japanese Army Academy. Returning to Yunnan in 1909, he served in a number of military posts in the New Army. In 1911, under the command of Gen. Cai E, he participated in the Wuchang Uprising, which marked the start of the Xinhai Revolution that eventually toppled the Qing dynasty.

    During early 1912 Tang’s forces invaded neighboring Guizhou Province, which he conquered. He was recognized as military governor of Guizhou by the Beiyang government in May of that year. Liu Xianshi succeeded Tang as Guizhou governor when Tang returned to Yunnan to succeed Cai E as military governor.  Tang Jiyao replaced Cai E as military Governor of Yunnan in 1913.  Tang agreed with Cai E that the military was the most important institution in China and should play a major role in government, leading to the Yunnan army remaining a major force.

    When Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself emperor of China in December 1915, Tang announced the independence of Yunnan with the support of Cai E, Li Liejun and others. He was a prominent leader of the army against Yuan Shikai during the National Protection War, and with Yuan’s death Tang emerged as one of the most powerful military leaders in southern China and extended his power base into Guangxi and Sichuan provinces.

    After Cai E died in 1916, Tang helped Sun Yat-Sen set up the Constitutional Protection Movement in 1917 and started his own party, the People's Party (民治党), while remaining a member of Sun's Kuomintang.

    Tang Jiyao had a cousin, Tang Jiyu, who was also a general. Tang Jiyao sought to use propaganda to gain publicity for himself on the national stage in China. He smuggled confiscated opium to Shanghai, but the local Green Gang informed the British authorities and much of the opium ended up on the black market. Tang Jiyu avoided Shanghai during the trial against officials involved in the opium deal in 1916.

    Tang Jiyao set up an opium trafficking scheme in Yunnan, with monopolies, taxes and licenses, and succeeded in producing large amounts of opium from poppy plants, which were suited to Yunnan's climate. He transported opium via Indochina to Haiphong, which was a port, from where it was sent to China via the coast.

    Tang Jiyao was described in colorful ways in two books by French journalist and novelist Lucien Bodard, i.e. "Monsieur le consul" ("The French Consul", 1973) and "Le fils du consul" ("The Consul's Son", 1975), based on his recollections when he was a child with his father, Albert Bodard, who was Consul of France, successively in Chengdu and in Yunnanfu (later called Kunming). In these two books there are chapters with extensive descriptions of Tang Jiyao's dealings with colonial French authorities in China and Hanoi, French Indochina, as part of his efforts to develop his drug trade to finance weapons purchases for his army while France was trying to build a railroad from Hanoi to Kunming and further to Chengdu to expand their economic and political interests in southern China from French Indochina.

    When Sun Yat-sen was appointed Grand Marshal of the military government in Guangzhou, Tang Jiyao was promoted to the rank of Marshal. He assisted Sun in defeating the Old Guangxi Clique, when it tried to seize the Yunnan Army and remove Tang as its leader in 1920.

    Six days after Sun's death in 1925, Tang claimed to be Sun's successor and head of the Kuomintang; however, the party rejected his claims. Tang then invaded Guangdong and Guangxi but was defeated by Li Zongren in the Yunnan-Guangxi War.  Tang later became vice premier of Chen Jiongming's China Public Interest Party. He died of illness in May 1927 in Kunming, one month after he was ousted by Hu Ruoyu and Long Yun in a military coup and lost all of his power in Yunnan. Long Yun then supported Chiang Kai-shek's Nanjing government, dissolved the People's Party and expelled Chen's party.

    Dr Sun Yat Sen

    Sun Yat-sen (/ˈsʌn ˈjætˈsɛn/; 12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925) was a Chinese politician, physician and philosopher who provisionally served as the first president of the Republic of China; and the first leader of the Kuomintang(Nationalist Party of China). He is referred as the "Father of the Nation" in the Republic of China due to his instrumental role in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty during the Xinhai Revolution. Sun remains a unique figure among 20th-century Chinese leaders for being widely revered in both mainland China and Taiwan.

    Although Sun is considered to be one of the greatest leaders of modern China, his political life was one of constant struggle and frequent exile. After the success of the revolution in which the Han Chinese regained power after 268 years of living under Manchurian rule (Qing dynasty), he quickly resigned from his post as President of the newly founded Republic of China and relinquished it to Yuan Shikai, and led a successive revolutionary government as a challenge to the warlordswho controlled much of the nation. Sun did not live to see his party consolidate its power over the country during the Northern Expedition. His party, which formed a fragile alliance with the Chinese Communist Party, split into two factionsafter his death.

    Sun's chief legacy resides in his development of the political philosophy known as the Three Principles of the People: nationalism (independence from foreign imperialist domination), "rights of the people" (sometimes translated as "democracy"), and the people's livelihood (just society).

    Dr Sun Yat Sen's family photo

    Elected as the first Provincial President

    As President of the Republic of China

    Sultan Iskandar Shah

    Sultan Iskandar Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Idris Murshidul Azzam Shah Rahmatullah GCMG KCVO (10 May 1876 – 14 August 1938) was the 30th Sultan of Perak. Perak at that time was part of the British-administered Federated Malay States.He stayed at the Istana Kenangan, then moved to the Palace of Istana Iskandariah, Bukit Chandan, Kuala Kangsar.

    He ascended the Perak throne in November 1918 following the death of his brother Sultan Adbul Jalil. It was during Sultan Iskandar's reign that the Dinding and Pulau Pangkor territories were returned by the British in 1935. Prior to that, both territories were administered as part of the Straits Settlements.

    Adapted from Wikipedia.

    Sultan Idris Mushidul Azzam Shah

    Sultan Idris Murshidul Azzam Shah Ibni Almarhum Raja Bendahara Alang Iskandar Teja GCMG GCVO (19 June 1849 − 14 January 1916) was the 28th Sultan of Perak. Perak at that time was part of the British-administered Federated Malay States.

    He succeeded his father-in-law, Sultan Yusuf Sharifuddin Mudzaffar Shah, who died on 26 July 1887, and ruled until his death on 14 January 1916.

    In March 1900, he opened the Victoria Bridge, a single track railway bridge located in Karai, Perak. It is one of the oldest railway bridges in Malaysia, having been constructed between December 1897 and March 1900 by the Perak State Railway as a crossing over the Perak River to serve the local tin mining industry.

    Upon returning to Perak in 1911, Sultan Idris health was under par and he rested at Port Dickson. Whilst recovering, he made a nazar, should he be restored a good health, he would build a mosque in Bukit Chandan. His vow later materialised with the erection of Ubudiah Mosque but he did not live to see it completed. Sultan Idris death on 14 January 1916 at the age of 66. He was interred at the Royal Mausoleum, Kuala Kangsar with the title of Marhum Rahmatullah. He was succeeded by his son Sultan Abdul Jalil Karamatullah Nasiruddin Mukhataram Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Idris Murshidul Azzam Shah Rahmatullah.

    Adapted from Wikipedia.

    Sultan Abdul Jalil

    Sultan Abdul Jalil Karamatullah Nasiruddin Mukhataram Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Idris Murshidul Azzam Shah Rahmatullah KCMG (23 April 1868 – 26 October 1918) was a 29th Sultan of Perak. Perak was part of the Federated Malay States.

    Raja Abdul Jalil ascended the Perak throne in 1916 following the death of his father Sultan Idris Murshidul Azzam Shah Ibni Almarhum Raja Bendahara Alang Iskandar Teja.

    Sultan Abdul Jalil’s reign was somewhat brief and lasted only two years and ten months. He died on 26 October 1918 at age 50 and was interred next to his late father at the Al-Ghufran Royal Mausoleum in Bukit Chandan. He was succeeded by his half-brother - Sultan Iskandar Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Idris Murshidul Azzam Shah I Rahmatullah.

    Adapted from Wikipedia.

    Perak State Council 1939

    Perak State Council 1939.
    Mr Leong Sin Nam (seated second from left).

    Adapted from Arkib Negara Malaysia.

    Perak State Council 1936

    Perak State Council 1936.
    Mr Leong Sin Nam (seated 1st from right).

    Adapted from Arkib Negara Malaysia.

    Perak State Council 1925

    Perak State Council 1925.
    Mr Leong Sin Nam (3rd from right).

    Adapted from Arkib Negara Malaysia.

    Dato' Panglima Kinta Muhammad Yussuf

    The title of Dato’ Panglima Kinta originated during the reign of Sultan Mudzaffar Shah IIin 1636. For services rendered, Tok Chandang, son of Tok Changkat Piatu was appointed Maharaja Kinta (title later changed to Dato’ Panglima Kinta) and his wife Che Intan, daughter of Tok Nyior Manis, made a Toh Puan (first Toh Puan of Perak). Wilkinson had described that the succession to this dignity is a good example of the bergilir principle – where two families (the Ipoh or Paloh family and the Kepayang family) took it in turn to provide the Dato’ Panglima Kinta.

    When the ninth Dato’ Panglima Kinta Zainal Abidin (Uda Bidin) of the Kepayang family passed away in 1884, his cousin Muhammad Yusuff was elected the tenth Dato’ Panglima Kinta. Zainal Abidin’s son, Abdul Wahab became a very influential and wealthy Toh Muda, retaining his family’s aristocratic standing. Kinta’s interest were strengthened whenboth the new Dato’ Panglima Kinta and the Toh Muda were nominated to the Perak Council of State. It was the Dato’ Panglima Kinta Muhammad Yusuff who steered the growth of Ipoh from a small village into the largest town in Kinta,throughout his career from 1884 until his death in 1903. A relative of his by marriage, Che Hussin of Ipoh ascended to the title Orang Kaya Laksamana and was made a member of the Council of state in 1894.

    Adapted from SembangKuala

    President Li Yuanhong

    Li Yuanhong (Chinese: 黎元洪; pinyin: Lí Yuánhóng; courtesy name Songqing 宋卿) (October 19, 1864 – June 3, 1928) was a Chinese politician during the Qing dynasty and the Republic of China. He was the President of the Republic of China between 1916 and 1917, and between 1922 and 1923.

    Adapted from Wikipedia.